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- A judicial court of chancery, which in England and in the United States is distinctively a court with equity jurisdiction.
- The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Chan"cel*lor (?), n. [OE.
canceler, chaunceler, F. chancelier, LL.
cancellarius chancellor, a director of chancery, fr. L.
cancelli lattices, crossbars, which surrounded the seat of
judgment. See Chancel.] A judicial court of chancery,
which in England and in the United States is distinctively a
court with equity jurisdiction.
&fist; The chancellor was originally a chief scribe or
secretary under the Roman emperors, but afterward was invested
with judicial powers, and had superintendence over the other
officers of the empire. From the Roman empire this office passed
to the church, and every bishop has his chancellor, the principal
judge of his consistory. In later times, in most countries of
Europe, the chancellor was a high officer of state, keeper of the
great seal of the kingdom, and having the supervision of all
charters, and like public instruments of the crown, which were
authenticated in the most solemn manner. In France a secretary is
in some cases called a chancellor. In Scotland, the
appellation is given to the foreman of a jury, or assize. In the
present German empire, the chancellor is the president of
the federal council and the head of the imperial administration.
In the United States, the title is given to certain judges of
courts of chancery or equity, established by the statutes of
separate States. Blackstone. Wharton.
Chancellor of a bishop, or of a
diocese (R. C. Ch. & ch. of Eng.), a law
officer appointed to hold the bishop's court in his diocese, and
to assist him in matter of ecclesiastical law. --
Chancellor of a cathedral, one of the four
chief dignitaries of the cathedrals of the old foundation, and an
officer whose duties are chiefly educational, with special
reference to the cultivation of theology. --
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, an
officer before whom, or his deputy, the court of the duchy
chamber of Lancaster is held. This is a special
jurisdiction. -- Chancellor of a
university, the chief officer of a collegiate body.
In Oxford, he is elected for life; in Cambridge, for a term of
years; and his office is honorary, the chief duties of it
devolving on the vice chancellor. -- Chancellor of
the exchequer, a member of the British cabinet upon
whom devolves the charge of the public income and expenditure as
the highest finance minister of the government. --
Chancellor of the order of the Garter (or other
military orders), an officer who seals the commissions and
mandates of the chapter and assembly of the knights, keeps the
register of their proceedings, and delivers their acts under the
seal of their order. -- Lord high chancellor of
England, the presiding judge in the court of
chancery, the highest judicial officer of the crown, and the
first lay person of the state after the blood royal. He is
created chancellor by the delivery into his custody of the great
seal, of which he becomes keeper. He is privy counselor by his
office, and prolocutor of the House of Lords by
- Webster's Unabridged Dictionary (1913)
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